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November 2020



Animal: Domestic pig (Sus scrofa domesticus), Landrace, adult, female.

Organ: Kidney (formalin-fixed tissue).

History: High fever, severe dyspnea, anorexia, apathy, cutaneous hyperemia and petechial hemorrhages, death after a few hours after the onset of the clinical signs.

Necropsy findings: Gross changes consisted of hydrothorax, hydropericardium, severe pulmonary edema and multifocal petechial hemorrhages on the epicardium, intestinal serosa and in the renal cortex (Figure 1). The gallbladder wall was diffusely thickened due to severe edema and extensive hemorrhages. The spleen and the mesenteric, submandibular, retropharyngeal and lumbaortic lymph nodes were diffusely enlarged and hemorrhagic.

Gross findings:  Kidney: widespread petechial hemorrhages in the renal cortex.

Histopathological findings:  Kidney: Diffuse congestion, vascular endothelial necrosis, thrombosis, interstitial edema and hemorrhages.

Diagnosis:  Kidney: severe, acute, widespread hemorrhages in the renal cortex.

Name of disease: African swine fever (ASF)

Etiology:  African swine fever virus, Asfarviride family, Asfivirus superior class, Nucleocytoviricota filum, Pokkesviricetes class.

Comments: The presence of virus was confirmed by RT-PCR. African swine fever is a highly contagious infectious disease of domestic pigs and wild boars, with severe economic consequences for affected countries. In regions where the disease is exotic, mortality rates often reach 100%. Pathological findings include widespread hemorrhages in spleen, lymph nodes, kidneys, heart, gastrointestinal tract and respiratory system. Death usually occurs as a result of extensive tissue necrosis associated with hemostatic and hemodynamic changes.

Investigation and photo by: Andrei Ungur and Marian Taulescu. Department of Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cluj-Napoca, Romania.